Monday, September 24, 2018

Keeping Snakes Away: Advice from a Wildlife Biologist

Keeping Snakes Away: Advice from a Wildlife Biologist

For many, the sight of a snake in or around the house is the stuff of nightmares. Unfortunately, many companies take advantage of people's fear of snakes to sell products or services that are ineffective, and in some cases, they may even recommend the use of products that increase the danger to family members and pets.
First off, the likelihood of a snake showing up on your doorstep depends on several factors, including your location; surrounding landscape (urban vs. rural); presence of a water source (ponds, lakes, rivers); and your lawn and garden design and maintenance schedule. If you are finding snakes in or around your home, keep calm and follow the tips below:

Mow grass often and keep it short: Snakes are less likely to hang out and move through the short grass because it increases their exposure to predators (e.g., coyotes, hawks). Short grass also makes snakes easier to spot by you and your family members.
Avoid watering your lawn: Watering of your lawn and garden may attract prey species (e.g., worms, slugs, frogs) which may attract snakes seeking a meal. 

Keep trees and shrubs trimmed: Trim trees and shrubs away from your home and garage, and keep branches away from the ground. Creating a 24-36" space under trees and shrubs will reduce snake use and will make snakes easier to spot if present.

Move the bird feeder: Birds are messy eaters and often leave seed scattered below their feeder. Seed on the ground attracts rodents which may attract snakes seeking a meal. Move feeders away from the house or stop feeding altogether. Store bird seed in a metal can with a tight fitting lid.

Install a perch pole: Hawks and owls are natural snake predators that can be attracted to an area with the aid of a well-placed perch pole. Poles should be placed in open areas so the hawk or owl has a good view of the yard and surrounding area. Learn more.

Feed pets inside: Feeding pets outside can attract insects and rodents which attracts snakes. If feeding outside is necessary, be sure to cleanup uneaten food right away. Store pet food in a metal can with a tight fitting lid.

Move your woodpile: Store firewood, excess lumber, and other types of debris away from your home. Stacks of lumber and firewood, and other piles a debris are perfect places for snakes to hide.

Think before you landscape: Avoid using mulch and large rock in your landscaping. These materials attract snakes and their prey and can create breeding and overwintering habitat. Instead, use smaller tight-fitting rock such as gravel or river rock. Avoid water gardens and Koi ponds as these water features attract snakes.
Seal the cracks. Seal cracks and crevices on the house, sidewalks, and foundations to prevent snakes from using these areas. Consider getting an energy audit. Energy audits can be a great way to identify cracks and crevices that allow air conditioning and/or heat to escape the home - these same cracks and crevices may be used by snakes and other small creatures.

Fencing: There are no sure-fire ways to keep snakes away, but when all else fails fencing may be worth consideration. Fencing should be buried a few inches into the ground, be constructed using 1/4" or smaller rigid mesh or solid sheeting, and include a bend at the top to prevent snakes from climbing up and over. Several companies make wildlife-specific fencing to save you time

Do not use mothballs: The active ingredient in mothballs is naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene. These chemicals are toxic to insects and mammals but are not effective against snakes (San Julian, 1985). Naphthalene may cause illness in humans, and have been linked to death in children. Using mothballs outside your home violates product labels, and puts your family and pets at risk.  Do not use mothballs.

Do not use sulfur: Many snake-away products claim that sulfur in their products will keep snakes away. Unfortunately sulfur is not effective at deterring snakes and is a waste of money (San Julian, 1985).

Do not use ceramic eggs or golf balls: If having issues with snakes in your chicken coop, using golf balls, or ceramic, glass or wooden eggs are not the answer. Snakes that eat these artifical eggs die a slow and painful death over many weeks, and new snakes will just show up to take that snake's place. Instead, focus on improving your coop to prevent snakes from entering and follow the deterrents recommended above. If using ceramic or other artificial eggs to encourage a brooding hen to lay, be sure to glue the eggs down to prevent snakes from eating them. Note: The loss of few chicken eggs here and there is a small price to pay for natural rodent control. Snakes eat lots of rodents, and rodents pose a significant risk to human and livestock health.

Do not release kingsnakes, racers, or other snake predators: Capturing and relocating animals is rarely successful and may even be against the law. Please focus on the deterrents listed above. To learn more about wildlife relocation see (coming soon).

Do not use sticky traps outside: Traps placed outside capture all sorts of non-target animals and result in a slow agonizing death. Here's a short video showing how to properly release an animal stuck a sticky trap.

Do not bring out the guns, shovels, or other weapons: Bringing a gun or other weapon to a snake encounter increases the person's risk significantly. Discharging a firearm toward the ground can result in bullet ricochet, and even trained police officers have accidentally killed innocent bystanders when trying to shoot a snake. If needing to get a snake to move on, use a water hose to spray the snake which will encourage it to find a new place to hang out.

Last but not least...
Learn: A fear of snakes often stems from a simple misunderstanding. Take the time to learn more about snake identification and biology. Two great groups on Facebook are Snake Identification and Wild Snakes: Education & Discussion. If on Twitter, be sure to follow Dr. David Steen (@AlongsideWild) for snake facts and identification tips.

Use your water hose: Opt for a non-lethal way to encourage a snake to move along. A blast from a water hose is usually enough to get even a stubborn snake to hit the road.

Visit a nature center or park: Many local parks & nature centers display native wildlife, including snakes. Getting an up-close view of snakes, from within their glass cage, is a safe way to work on your fear.

Attend a meeting or join a club: Many areas around the world have societies focused on amphibians and reptiles. These groups are a great way to meet local snake enthusiasts and take the next step toward conquering your fear. 

Respect the snake: It's important to understand that snakes play an important role in the ecosystem, and are good to have around the lawn and garden. Dekay's Brownsnakes, for example, feed on garden pests such as slugs and snails. Ratsnakes feed on rodents that can spread the disease to people, pets, and livestock. Even venomous species of snakes are important to keep around, recent research has found that having a healthy rattlesnake population can benefit people by keeping Lyme Disease in check.

Monday, September 10, 2018

Cattle Ranching: A Multi-million Naira Agribusiness

Businesses like Cattle Breeding/Ranching, not on the list of favorite businesses for most people are really lucrative. Why? The reason is that even though fewer people consider cattle farming when looking for good businesses, a very high percentage of people consume beef and a lot of other cattle products daily.
Cattle production involves keeping bulls and cows for meat (beef) or milk (dairy) purpose. Cattle feed on grasses, legumes, roughage. That is why they are called herbivores and they are also known as ruminants (because they have one stomach with four compartments).
In Nigeria (West Africa), commercial beef cattle production is very common especially in the Northern part of the country, but with innovation, one can have a ranch or breed cattle in any part of Nigeria profitably both in and out of rain season.
Cattle farmers are not just limited to selling meat or milk; there are tons of other products that they can sell.
In fact, no part of a cattle’s body is a waste product, from the horns down to the hoofs. Let me show you some of the products that can be gotten from cattle which you can sell to make money.
•Meat •Cow dung’s for organic fertilizer production   •Milk •Cheese• Cowhide• Cow Bones •Cow Hooves •Cow Bladders •Cow Horns
Starting A Cattle Farm
Farmland-: The most important thing that you would need for this business is a large piece of land that can be used as a farmstead.
The land should have good green pasture because the grass is the staple for cows. You can look for a land whose owners are not currently using and lease it for use as a cattle farm or you could consider purchasing your own land which is the best. Then, you should fence it to protect the cows from being stolen or wandering off.
Land Preparation: Prepare the land for cattle farming, you may call it a ranch, the preparation of the land is necessary by planting high yielding pasture (grasses, legumes, roughage) which you can source within Nigeria which the cattle’s will feed on.

Research has shown the pastures sourced within Nigeria are better than the imported because our climate and breeds of cattle’s are considered. 
Acquire the Necessary Facilities-:
The first facility you would need for your cattle farm is a good fence to serve as security for your farm. Then, you would need a good source of water may be a borehole, well or an artificial stream to provide a steady supply of drinking water for the cattle.
You may also need to construct a small farmhouse to serve as a store and living quarters for anyone you employ to take care of the cattle. You may also need to construct a shed for the cows in case of harsh weather or plant trees.
Feeding the Cattle-:
The largest percentage of expenses you would incur on your cattle farming business will be on feeding. Although cows feed on pastures, by-products from maize, cassava, a fruit etc, but with the availability of cattle feed now in the market it can have a balanced diet, as a result, it becomes a health and fattened.
According to Governor Rotimi Akeredolu of Ondo State, if you haul cattle from Kano down to your ranch, by the time you take them, you fatten them and, in less than three months, you will make money. If you are able to do that, the people will buy a cow that is healthy, well-fed and big, rather than the one that trekked from Sokoto or Kano. That is to say, it is a business to venture.
Monitor your livestock regularly. Contact a proficient veterinarian who takes care of immunization.
Mating and Reproduction-: When stocking your farm with cattle, to begin with, you would need to stock up on both female and males.
The males would be used mainly for reproductive purposes. Just like other farm animals, cows have their heat period and you would have to monitor your female cows to know when they are on heat so that they can mate with the male cows.
Most cattle farmers don’t rely on natural reproduction because it doesn’t produce fast results like artificial insemination. With artificial insemination, your herd can grow bigger faster. Before you embark on this method of reproduction, ensure that you consult experts to put you through on the right procedure and as soon as a female cow gets pregnant, you should separate it from the rest and care for it specially, with the right nutrition and comfort to reduce stress and a risk of abortion.
Diseases: Diseases such as Tick damage and tick-borne diseases, Gallsickness, Tuberculosis (TB), Cattle measles, Anthrax, Diet-related problems, Lumpy-skin disease (LSD) etc. But can be prevented through early vaccination.
• Cattle Rustling: This has been a big challenge in Nigeria cattle business that is why adequate security should be made to before starting this business, such as fencing etc.
• Capital: Capital can be a very major challenge in this business but with availabilities of Agric funds from the government this is becoming less challenged. Forming of a cooperative society among breeders or ranchers will make fund sourcing easier.
• Feeding: With the planting of high yield pastures now available in Nigeria through research institutes and availability of water supplies it will be addressed.
Just like every other business venture the profitability is high because of the high demand for beef and it’s by-products.
Leading Example Of Cattle Breeding/Racing Business
OWONIKOKO Ranch and Farm is a leading cattle breeding and fattening company involved in upgrading and multiplying cattle breeds/herds with local adaptability and improved performance and yield, the innovative breeding technology of artificial insemination and careful selection.